Learn about the terms frequently used on the Schema App site, support articles and applications. 

Adobe Experience Manager

A content management system created and maintained by Adobe. Schema App offers an integration with some instances of Adobe Experience Manager.

A broad term referring to the process of search engines (e.g Google, Bing) using artificial intelligence (AI) technologies to enhance the quality of information gathering on their platform. This approach leverages AI techniques, including advanced machine learning and natural language processing. A key goal of AI Search is to provide users with personalized, contextually relevant results.


A Schema App tool used to crawl a given website and generate reports on structured data implementation and trends.

Application Programming Interface (API)

A set of rules and protocols that allows different software applications to communicate with one another. An API defines standard methods and data formats which applications can use to request and exchange information.


An e-commerce platform that allows businesses to create and manage an online store. The Schema App BigCommerce integration maps properties to product data stored in BigCommerce, automatically generating and deploying detailed product markup across all product detail pages.


Broadly, a Class is a template that describes the possible characteristics, attributes, and relationships for a data object. In, a Type is analogous to a Class. Both are methods for structuring information and are applied to create data objects or data items.

Connected Markup

A term to describe markup with well-defined entities and, more importantly, well-defined relationships between the entities. This approach minimizes “islands of code” where entities are defined but not connected.

Content Data Layer

A structured and organized framework for storing and managing data within a web application or website. It is used to facilitate the efficient retrieval and manipulation of information related to the contents of a website.


A markup generation method whereby SchemaBot crawls a website, generates JSON-LD markup, and sends the JSON-LD to Schema App’s cache. There are several different deployment methods (e.g AEM, WordPress, Javascript, etc) that can be paired with this generation method.

Custom Post Mapping

A functionality of the Schema App WordPress Advanced Plugin. Users can assign a Type to a Custom Post, and the WordPress Advanced Plugin will generate automatic default schema markup (e.g image, author, video, etc) for that Primary Type.

Data Item

A specific instance of a Class or Type. In data items can be referenced using their unique identifier, or @id. The Schema App Editor creates Data Items manually, while the Schema App Highlighter generates them dynamically at scale. A connected data item is a node in a graph.

Default Markup

A term used to describe markup that is automatically created for a particular page. It is typically generated by a Content Management System or a particular HTML template.

Dev Tools

A suite of web developer tools built directly into all major browsers. Dev Tools is typically accessed by right-clicking on a page and selecting “Inspect” or via the key command “CMD|CTRL + Shift + I”. Commonly used tools for structured data include the Elements, Console, and Network tabs.


A free, open-source content management system (CMS) written in PHP. Schema App offers an integration method specific to Drupal for some subscription plans.


Capable of automatic or programmatic changes. Dynamic schema markup describes schema markup that automatically updates to reflect changes in page content. In contrast, static schema markup requires manual updates.


In the context of knowledge graphs, an edge represents the relationship between two entities or nodes. Edges signify how entities are related to each other.


A Schema App tool for manually authoring static schema markup. The Editor is used to create individual instances of structured data, referred to as data items.


A thing or concept that is unique and distinguishable, with specific and well-defined attributes. An entity can also described as a Data Item, a Resource, a Node, or a Thing.

Entity Linking

The process of connecting an entity defined in one source (e.g Schema App) with corresponding entities defined in other sources (e.g Wikidata). Entity Linking improves the connectedness of structured data and can be used to disambiguate concepts. Entity linking is a key strategy in semantic SEO as it provides information about context and relationships. Schema App has tools that can provide automatic entity linking as well as manual entity linking.

Google Knowledge Graph

A large and organized knowledge base that was introduced by Google in 2012. Google’s Knowledge Graph contains information about people, places, things, and the relationships between them. It is used to power a variety of Google’s search capabilities.

Google Merchant Center

A platform created and maintained by Google that allows businesses to upload and manage product listings for display on Google Shopping. Schema App offers an integration with Google Merchant Center for Enterprise level accounts.

Google Search Console

A reporting tool created and maintained by Google to track metrics and issues for a given website or website subsection.

Graph Database

A method for storing data in the form of RDF triples. A graph database can be represented as a Knowledge Graph.

GSC Enhancement Report

A reporting module within Google Search Console that provides a snapshot of URLs that are eligible for a particular Rich Result. Users can also review specific errors or warnings impacting eligibility and request re-indexing once errors or warnings are addressed.


A Schema App tool used to author dynamic JSON-LD at scale across similarly templated pages. The Highlighter maps properties to the contents of specific web page components

Highlighter Template

Created using the Highlighter tool, a highlighter template is used to target a set of webpages with similar structure and primary Type. The pages should be similar enough that specific page components and content can be reliably mapped to properties.

Image Repair Tool

A Schema App tool used to generate ImageObject data items with height and width from an image address URL.

Incognito Mode

A browser option that isolates information from a browsing session from previous or future browsing sessions. Stored data from previous browsing (cache, cookies, etc) are not loaded, making it the preferred option for validating changes to JSON-LD.

Integration Method

A specific method for generating and deploying markup on a website using Schema App. Schema App offers a variety of integration methods. Selecting the best integration method for a website will depend on several factors, including its Content Management System (CMS), and page speed. Examples of integration methods include Javascript, WordPress, and AEM among others.

Integration Process

The process of establishing communication between Schema App’s markup generation tools & specific website. The process will change depending on the method of integration selected.

Invalid Rich Result Instance

In the context of Google’s Enhancement Report, structured data is invalid when it does not meet Google’s required property guidelines. Resolving invalid instances can involve a variety of strategies ranging from content changes to technical code changes.


A programming language commonly used to create interactive and dynamic elements on websites. Most forms of Schema App deployment rely on JavaScript to generate and fetch JSON-LD.

JavaScript Object Notation for Linked Data (JSON-LD)

A format for expressing linked data using JSON. It is specifically designed to be easy to read for humans and easy to parse for machines. JSON-LD is typically Google’s preferred method for encoding structured data.

Knowledge Graph

A structured representation of knowledge comprised of related entities with specific attributes, expressed as RDF triples. Structuring information this way can make it easier to query.

Linked Data

A group of data where links and relationships are defined between various pieces of data. Linked data is well suited to semantic queries.


In the context of computer science, a literal is a specific value that is directly expressed (e.g. a number, string, or boolean). Unlike a reference or data item, a literal provides concrete, standalone information.

Maintenance and Monitoring

A monthly Schema App review service providing an audit of Rich Result eligibility, and appropriate updates to templates. Maintenance and monitoring is performed to mitigate the risk of schema drift or unexpected deployment issues.


Additional information used to enhance or improve the usability of a document or code (e.g text formatting). Schema markup is a specific kind of markup used in the context of web development and SEO.

Markup Deployment

The process of Schema App depositing JSON-LD on a particular website or webpage.

Markup Generation

The process of Schema App creating dynamic JSON-LD on a particular website or webpage.


A specification used in web development and markup languages to embed machine-readable data (e.g schema markup) within HTML documents. It provides a way to annotate content on web pages to make it more understandable for search engines, browsers, and other software applications. In HTML templates, microdata is often mapped to particular HTML components so that the structure and description of the page are tightly coupled.


In the context of graph databases, a node is a fundamental unit that represents an entity or a point of connection. Nodes correspond to entities, and the relationships between nodes are represented by edges.


A method for internet users to share information between 2+ websites without requiring them to share critical information (e.g passwords) with both websites.


In the context of RDF or triple based representation of data, the object is the entity or thing connected to the subject through the predicate. It represents the target or outcome of the relationship described in the triple.

Omni LER

An system developed by Schema App for recognizing and extracting entities from text content. Relevant entities are referenced in the JSON-LD that the Schema App Highlighter generates.


An ontology defines the types of entities that can exist within a dataset, and the properties that describe and connect these entities. is an example of a loose ontology, serving as a vocabulary rather than imposing strict logic constraints like other formal ontologies.

Page Set

A grouping of one or more URLs on a particular domain. Used in the context of Highlighter deployment, a page set is the technical term for the set of URLs a Highlighter template will deploy to on a given website. Page Sets are website or subdomain specific and cannot span multiple sites.

Page Template

A similar, or identical layout and HTML structure applied to one or more URLs. Used in the context of scoping and authoring a Highlighter template, a page template helps define the intended Page Set.


In the context of RDF or triple-based representation of data, the predicate is the relationship or attribute that connects a subject to an object. It defines the relationship between the two entities.

Primary Entity

In the context of schema markup, the Type that best describes the central content of the page.


A specific attribute or characteristic of an entity. It defines the qualities an entity may have and the specific relationships an entity may have with other entities.

Rendered HTML

Rendered HTML is the HTML that exists in a browser after a page has finished loading. Rendered HTML is often different from the original or “source” HTML sent from the website’s server, as it includes the results of scripts that may run.


In the context of the web, a resource is anything that can be identified and addressed, typically through a URL. It can refer to webpages, images, documents, or any other entity that can be accessed on the internet.

Resource Description Framework (RDF)

A framework for expressing data as a directed graph using subject-predicate-object statements known as triples. By combining these triples, vast interconnected graphs of resources can be created. This is done using Uniform Resource Identifiers (URIs).

Rich Result

A search result that includes more than a simple text snippet & URL. Rich Results can include additional visual or interactive elements such as reviews, pricing, or carousels. Rich results can provide users with more context and information directly on the search results page.

Rich Result Eligible

A URL which Google’s validity requirements for a specific search appearance can be described as being eligible for that Rich Result. A valid instance does not automatically guarantee that Google will award that appearance.

Rich Result Test

A testing tool created and maintained by Google to assess structured data for Rich Result eligibility and/or errors. Both URLs and snippets of code can be tested. When testing URLs, the results are cached by the testing tool for approximately 24 hours.

Rich Snippet

A subtype of a Rich Result, often specifically referring Product or Review information appearing below the standard blue link result on a SERP.

Schema App Advanced WordPress Plugin

A WordPress Plugin created and maintained by Schema App. Enables additional functionality within the Schema App WordPress Plugin settings menu, including but not limited to: integration with Schema App’s custom authoring tools, automated entity linking, and Custom Post Mapping.

Schema App Process

A cyclical, five step process developed and followed by Schema App to achieve measurable results from schema markup initiatives. The five steps are defining a strategy, authoring, deploying, monitoring, and reporting on schema markup.

Schema App WordPress Plugin

A WordPress Plugin created and maintained by Schema App that dynamically generates markup on Posts and Pages. Primary Types are typically BlogPosting or Article. Properties include images, author, and video among others.

Schema Drift

A process where page content and/or structured data change and no longer refer to the same information. Static markup is more prone to schema drift because the JSON-LD content does not automatically update when the page content updates. This risk can be mitigated by using dynamic markup tools.

Schema Markup

A specific type of structured data based on the vocabulary. Schema markup can be expressed in several in machine-readable formats, including JSON-LD, and microdata. A common application of schema markup is describing webpages so search engines can more easily find, contextualize, and return relevant information. In some cases, schema markup can also change the appearance of a search result on the SERP.

Schema Markup Validator

A tool created and maintained by Google for testing and reviewing the structure and contents of schema markup. This test assesses whether the structure and syntax of the structured data and code is correct. This test does not assess rich result eligibility.

Schema Performance Analytics (SPA)

An interactive reporting and analytics tool created and maintained by Schema App. Schema Performance Analytics enables users to monitor, analyze, and generate data about how schema markup is impacting a website’s performance in Google Search.

An ontology designed to describe the web content using a predetermined set of Types and properties (i.e possible relationships between those Types). Vocabulary

In computer science, a vocabulary is a set of possible terms in a coding language. is a controlled vocabulary, where only certain Types and attributes are valid. The vocabulary was developed for semantic web optimization, and has applications in AI and knowledge graph initiatives.


A crawler user agent created and used by Schema App for various applications including generating markup using the Crawler, and creating Analyzer reports.

Search Engine Results Page (SERP)

The page displayed by a search engine in response to a user’s query. It includes a list of search results, often consisting of a mix of organic listings, paid advertisements, featured snippets, knowledge panels, and other relevant information.


In computation, semantics describes how data behaves and how machines can interpret data. In linguistics, semantics refers to how language expresses meaning and how meaning is interpreted. Although both are relevant to semantic SEO overall, the computational definition is particularly relevant to schema markup.

A category of strategies used by search engines to understand the content of a user’s query and the content of various web pages.

Semantic SEO

An approach to improving search engine metrics that emphasizes efforts to improve the ability of a search engine to understand the meaning of page content, and the relationships between page content and other concepts/entities defined on the internet.


An e-commerce platform that allows businesses to create and manage online stores. The Schema App Shopify integration maps Shopify data about products to properties to automatically generate detailed Product markup. Other automatically generated schema markup includes article & blog pages, certain review platforms, and product category pages.

Source HTML

The HTML file associated with a webpage. It may be different from the final rendered HTML that is generated in a client’s browser. Source HTML will not reflect the results of any scripts that run, including Schema App’s window.schema_highlighter and highlight.js scripts.

Staging Environment

A website used to test code changes in a pre-production environment which is very similar to the production environment.


Remaining the same. In the context of schema markup, static markup does not automatically update to reflect changes in page content. Schema markup authored in the Editor is static, meaning data items will need to be updated manually if the page content changes.


A web domain that is part of a more broad web domain (e.g is a subdomain of Subdomains are often used to organize and categorize different sections or services within a website. Within Schema App’s Tools, a subdomain requires its own individual Project.


A folder that is nested within a broader folder (e.g is a subfolder of


In the context of triple-based data representation, the subject is the entity or thing that the statement is about. It is typically the first element in a triple and represents the main focus of the information being conveyed.

RDF Triple

A method for representing 2 objects and the relationship between those objects. These three elements (a subject, an object and a predicate) constitute the simplest possible knowledge graph.


In, a Type is a category or class that can be used to categorize content.

Uniform Resource Identifier (URI)

A URI is a string of characters that identifies a resource. It provides a consistent way to identify resources across different systems and protocols. All data items generated by Schema App have a URI so that they can be easily referenced and incorporated into a knowledge graph.

Uniform Resource Locator (URL)

A subtype of URI that both identifies a resource and where it’s located on the web. A URL (Uniform Resource Locator) is a unique reference or address to a resource can be found on the internet.


“The process of confirming schema markup is deploying correctly. There are three primary criteria which must be met:
1. Markup should be deploying to a webpage.
2. Markup should be mapping correctly to page components.
3. Markup should be valid, accurate, and true.”

Valid Rich Result Instance

In the context of Google’s Enhancement Report, structured data is valid when it meets Google’s required property guidelines. Valid instances do not guarantee that Google will award a particular appearance or result.

Web Page Component

A sub-unit of a web page. It can be a code block or a visual component


A mechanism that allows one system or application to send real-time data to another system or application triggered by a specific event occurring. In the context of Schema App, WebHooks are used to send JSON-LD authored in the Schema App Editor or Highlighter to a website’s WordPress server when using the Schema App WordPress Advanced Plugin.


Wikidata is a free online graph database written and maintained by a community of volunteers. It is used to train and inform many knowledge graphs including Google’s Knowledge Graph.


Wikipedia is a free online encyclopedia written and maintained by a community of volunteers. It is used to train and inform many knowledge graphs including Google’s Knowledge Graph.


A free, open-source Content Management System (CMS) written in PHP. Schema App offers two plugins for WordPress: the free Schema App WordPress plugin, and the Schema App WordPress Advanced Plugin which requires a subscription to Schema App’s tools.


A free, open-source e-commerce plugin built for WordPress. The Schema App WordPress Advanced plugin maps data about products to properties to automatically generate detailed Product markup.


A query language used to navigate and select elements from XML documents. In the context of Schema App, the Highlighter uses XPaths to map the content of a webpage pages to specific types and properties.