Markup – Is a text-based organization of data that is included in a file and served from the web. It typically uses the schema.org vocabulary.
Organic Search Results – Listings on search engine results pages that appear because of their relevance to the search terms, as opposed to their being advertisements.
Rich Snippets – The extra bits of information that appear next to results on a search page. This could include reviews, related links, location information, an embedded Wikipedia article, etc.
Schema.org – “A collaborative, community activity with a mission to create, maintain, and promote schemas for structured data on the Internet, on web pages, in email messages, and beyond… Schema.org promotes a shared vocabulary that makes it easier for webmasters and developers to decide on a schema and get the maximum benefit for their efforts.”
Structured Data – Refers to kinds of data with a high level of organization, such as information in a relational database. When information is highly structured and predictable, search engines can more easily organize and display it in creative ways.
Semantic Search – Seeks to improve search accuracy by understanding the searcher’s intent and the contextual meaning of terms as they appear in the searchable data space, whether on the Web or within a closed system, to generate more relevant results.
Web Crawlers – Program designed to crawl and index content on the web. Google and other search engines use Crawlers to create a library of pages on the internet which can then be sorted using search queries.